glossary of video production and video editing terms


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Action Axis An imaginary line drawn between two subjects or along a line of motion to maintain continuity of screen direction. Crossing it from one shot to the next creates an error in continuity. It is also sometimes referred to as the 180-degree rule.

Action Safe Area Boundaries within which contents of a television picture are sure to be seen, regardless of masking differences in receiver displays, encompassing approximately 80-90% percent of the inner screen.

ADR Automated Dialogue Recording or Automated Dialogue Replacement. This is just dubbing, done in addition to or as a substitution for the original location sound. Also referred to as Looping.

Apple Box Sturdy wooden box used to slightly elevate a person or object to create better framing options. Apple box sizes vary somewhat depending on manufacturer, but all sizes are designed to be fractions of the Full Apple size. Thus two Half Apples exactly equal the size of a Full Apple, two Quarters equals one Half, and two Pancakes equal one Quarter.

Arial Shot A shot taken from a very high vantage point, especially from a plane, a helicopter, or a crane. May or may not involve camera movement.

Aspect Ratio Proportional height and width of a video image. The NTSC standard for is 4:3 for conventional monitors such as home television sets, but is rapidly being replaced by the more popular 16:9 for HDTV. In 16mm and 35mm the camera photographs a slightly square image, with an aspect ratio of 1.33 to 1. Aspect Ratios are usually shorted to leave out the ?Ǩ?- to 1,?Ǩ taking for granted that it will always be in relation to 1, an so ?Ǩ?1.33 to 1?Ǩ can just be called ?Ǩ?1.33.?Ǩ In 35mm, 1.33 is known as the Academy Aperture. In 35mm the image is usually shot with the Academy Aperture and then masked in the projector to produce a wider image: 1.85 in the U.S. and 1.66 in Europe.

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